Opening Pandora’s box: Realistic challenges of WMS migration in an e-commerce warehouse

Opening Pandora’s box: Realistic challenges of WMS migration in an e-commerce warehouse

In the era of digitization and the growing popularity of e-commerce, warehouse management systems (WMS) are becoming a key component of logistics operations. They allow efficient management of inventory, receiving, shipping and returns processes, which is an indispensable part of a successful e-commerce business. Sometimes, however, companies face a daunting task – migrating to a new system which is not just a matter of technology choice. It’s also the people, processes, change management and risks that can have a huge impact on the success of the entire business.

It is often said that the best teacher is experience. But does it always have to be our own experience? Isn’t it better to learn from the mistakes of others instead of repeating them? In this article, we will look at real-life stories of companies that have undertaken the difficult journey of WMS migration in the context of e-commerce logistics, and their experiences have been far from the expectations of managers and owners.

We will analyze the mistakes they made, understand why the failures occurred and learn how they could have been avoided. The goal is to understand how to not only survive, but succeed when migrating to a new WMS, preparing for future challenges in the rapidly changing world of e-commerce.

Let’s start at the beginning – what is a WMS?

E-commerce has transformed the way we do business around the world. It has also changed the way we manage warehouse operations. In today’s fast-paced online business, effective management of an e-commerce warehouse is crucial to maintaining customer satisfaction and profitable operations. It also covers a lot of ground – from inventory management, to order processing, to order fulfillment and returns management. Each of these elements is critical to providing a seamless experience for the customer. Therefore, choosing the right tools and systems to manage these processes becomes a key element of a company’s strategy.

This is where WMS (Warehouse Management System) and OMS (Order Management System) come to the rescue.

A WMS is a key tool that helps organizations effectively manage warehouse operations. It allows products to be tracked at every stage of the process, from receipt of goods to storage to shipment. The OMS, on the other hand, provides a central place for order management from the moment a customer places an order, through fulfillment and shipping, to return. OMS helps coordinate these processes by consolidating different sales channels, warehouses and suppliers, which is crucial in the complex ecosystem of e-commerce.

The two systems, while having different roles, are inextricably linked, often integrated into a single product. Hence, the decision to migrate to a new system is one of the most important choices an e-commerce company can make.

The purpose of migration and why companies decide to take this step

Migrating to a new warehouse management system is usually a significant undertaking that involves an investment of both time and resources. Companies decide to take this step for a variety of reasons, but always with a primary goal: to improve the efficiency, productivity and profitability of their e-commerce operations. Modern WMS and OMS systems offer a range of functions that allow you to optimize your warehouse processes. This includes everything from automating routine tasks, to optimizing warehouse layout, to advanced inventory management. Changing the system can allow companies to achieve higher efficiency, which translates into lower costs and faster order processing. For many e-commerce companies, a significant factor driving the decision to migrate is the need to scale. As a company grows, its storage needs may change. An old WMS may not be able to handle new demands, such as increased order volume, more SKUs, or expansion into new markets. The new system can offer better scalability and flexibility, allowing the company to grow freely. In today’s complex e-commerce world, it is crucial that the various systems used by a company are able to work together effectively. If an old WMS or OMS does not integrate well with other tools, such as ERP systems, CRM or e-commerce platforms, this can be a major setback. The new solution may offer better integration capabilities, which will contribute to better data and process management. As technology evolves, older systems may not be able to meet new demands, especially when it comes to security. Implementing a new system can provide a company with access to the latest technology and security standards, which is especially important when it comes to protecting customer data.

In conclusion, while migration can be a complicated process, it also brings many potential benefits. A properly executed migration can improve operational efficiency, increase scalability, better integrate systems and enhance security. Therefore, many e-commerce companies are taking this step in an effort to continuously grow and improve their competitiveness in the market.

The process of migrating to a new WMS/OMS system is usually complicated and requires careful planning and implementation. We can divide it into several stages:

Planning: The first step in the migration is to understand and define the company’s business goals and requirements for the new system. This includes assessing current performance, identifying areas that need improvement, and identifying key performance indicators (KPIs) to help gauge the success of the migration.

System selection: Next, the company must choose the system that best meets its needs. This choice should be made on the basis of a detailed analysis of the various solutions available on the market, taking into account such aspects as functionality, scalability, the ability to integrate with other systems or cost.

Data preparation: Before migration, data from the current system must be properly prepared. This may include data cleaning, normalization and transformation to ensure it is compatible with the new system.

Setup and customization: Once a new system is selected, the setup and customization stage follows. This may include configuring specific warehouse processes, setting inventory management rules or customizing the user interface.

Data import: In this step, data from the current system is transferred to the new one. This should be done in such a way as to ensure continuity of operations and maintain data integrity.

Testing: After system configuration and data import, the system must be tested. Tests should verify that all functions work properly and that the system meets the company’s expectations.

Employee training: Employees who will use the new system must be trained. The training should include practical instructions on how to use the system, as well as providing information on how the new system will affect their daily work.

Implementation: When everything is ready, implementation of the new system takes place. At this point, warehouse operations stop using the old system and everything starts working according to the new rules.

Monitoring and optimization: after implementation, it is important to monitor the performance of the system and assess whether it meets the

In the migration process, it is very important to ensure that the right team is in place, consisting of different roles, each with specific responsibilities. Depending on the scale and complexity of the process, the following roles can be encountered:

Project Manager: The project manager is responsible for coordinating the entire migration project. His tasks include resource management, schedule maintenance, cost control and communication with all stakeholders.

Business Analyst: The Business Analyst is responsible for understanding the business needs of the company and translating them into technical requirements for the new WMS/OMS system. The analyst will also monitor the effectiveness of the new system in the context of these business requirements.

IT/WMS Specialist: An IT/WMS Specialist is a person with deep technical knowledge of WMS/OMS systems. His tasks include configuring and customizing the new system, managing the data import process and resolving technical issues.

Specialist in the field. data: Specialist in the field. Data is responsible for data management during the migration process. His tasks include preparing the data for import, ensuring its quality and managing any data issues.

Warehouse Manager: The warehouse manager is critical to understanding how the new system will affect daily warehouse operations. His tasks may include training warehouse personnel, working with the business analyst to determine operational requirements, and monitoring the impact of the new system on warehouse operations.

End users: End users, such as warehouse workers, will use the new system on a daily basis. They should be involved in the migration process through training, testing the system, and providing feedback that can help adapt the system to their needs.

There may also be other roles in the migration process, depending on company and project specifics. It is important that each of these roles be properly involved and have clear responsibilities.

Since migrating to a new WMS/OMS system is not only a technical undertaking, but also a strategic challenge for any company, it is important to identify the risks that may arise during the project. Based on the experience of companies that have gone through this process, I have collected examples of the risks that can occur:

  • delays and budget overruns: Every IT project carries the risk of delays and budget overruns. Unexpected technical problems, underestimation of the complexity of the task or inexperience of the team can lead to longer project duration and higher costs.
  • data loss: During migration, data must be transferred from one system to another. If this process is not properly managed, there is a risk of data loss, errors or inconsistencies, which can affect business continuity.
  • disruptions to operations: Migration may cause temporary disruptions to warehouse operations. If not well planned and managed, these disruptions can be long-lasting, which can affect operational efficiency and customer satisfaction.
  • Failure to align the system with business needs: Choosing the wrong WMS/OMS system or configuring the system incorrectly can lead to a situation where the new system does not meet the company’s needs. This can lead to inefficient processes and increased operating costs.
  • resistance from employees: Any change, especially such a complicated one, can be met with resistance from employees. If employees are not properly prepared and trained, they may not adopt the new system, which can affect its effectiveness.
  • security problems: Implementing a new IT tool always carries the risk of security problems. If the new system is not properly secured, it can expose the company to huge legal risks often involving financial penalties.

Case studies, or what can go wrong

Case study 1: Delays and budget overruns

Background of the situation:

A large logistics company (3PL operator) specializing in warehouse management for e-commerce clients. Due to rapid growth and changing market requirements, the company decided to migrate to a new, more advanced WMS.

What went wrong:

Improper resource estimation: To begin with, the company’s management did not allocate sufficient resources to the project. There was a shortage of IT specialists to oversee the migration, and the project team was overloaded with other tasks.

Underestimation of complexity: The company had many non-standard processes that were not included in the original migration plans, leading to the need to modify the new system.

Problems with the vendor: The selected WMS vendor failed to provide adequate support at key points in the migration, leading to delays.



Costs: Due to delays and the need for modifications, the total cost of the project exceeded the original budget by 40%.

Disruptions in operations: Disruptions in warehouse operations led to delays in deliveries to customers, affecting the company’s reputation and ultimately the loss of several important customers.

Employee dissatisfaction: Lack of adequate training and support for employees has led to frustration and a decline in work efficiency.


The WMS migration was a difficult experience for the company that brought many challenges and unforeseen problems. Nevertheless, through this experience, the company has learned some key lessons that have influenced its future decisions and actions:

The importance of proper planning: The company understood that complex projects such as WMS migration require careful planning and analysis. This will identify potential problems at an early stage and avoid unexpected complications.

Resource allocation: The importance of allocating adequate resources-both human and financial-has become clear to the company. Understanding that having a properly trained team with the time and tools to manage the project is critical to its success.

Communication with suppliers: Cooperation with the WMS vendor is the key to success. The company realized that it was necessary to carefully set expectations, communicate regularly and build a relationship based on mutual trust.

Flexibility and adaptation: Even with the best planning, unexpected challenges can arise. The company has learned that it is important to be flexible and ready to adapt to changing circumstances.

Continuous evaluation and improvement: After the migration, the company understood the importance of regular system and process evaluation. This allows potential problems to be quickly identified and resolved before they become more serious.


Case study 2: Data compatibility issues

Background of the situation:

A fast-growing e-commerce company offering a wide range of home furnishing products. In response to increasing market demands and the need for better inventory management, the company decided to migrate to a modern WMS.

What went wrong:

Differences in data formatting: The old WMS used unique data formatting that was not compatible with the new system. Although there have been some attempts to convert this data, not all the information has been transferred correctly.

Lack of complete documentation: Available archives and data documentation were incomplete. The migration team has encountered difficulties in understanding what information is crucial and how to transfer it properly.

Integrated systems: The company has a number of integrated systems in place, such as a supplier relationship management system, a customer service system or its own ERP system, which have had data compatibility problems with the new WMS.



Inventory errors: Inaccuracies in transferred data led to inventory errors, resulting in product availability problems and delivery delays.

Additional costs: To resolve compatibility issues, the company had to invest in additional tools and resources, which increased the cost of migration.

Customer frustration: Errors in product availability and delays in deliveries led to customer dissatisfaction and negative online reviews.


The company realized the importance of careful analysis and preparation of data before migration. They understood that the structure and formatting of data in the current system should be carefully evaluated and understood. It is crucial to involve database experts who can help with proper conversion and migration. Communication and collaboration between IT, operations and business teams are essential to understanding what data is critical to the business.


Case study 3: Risk of operational downtime

Background of the situation: The company is an online retailer of organic everyday products. With hundreds of orders a day and concerned about the ecological footprint of its business, the company decided to upgrade its WMS to manage its orders and warehouse even more efficiently.

What went wrong:

Improper planning: The migration was scheduled during one of the busiest periods for the company. While there were predictions of possible downtime, they were vastly underestimated.

Technical errors: After the implementation of the new WMS, unforeseen technical problems arose, further extending the downtime.

No contingency plan: The company has not prepared a contingency plan that can be implemented in case of migration problems.



Operational downtime: Migration problems led to significant downtime, which meant orders were delayed for several days.

Revenue loss: With each day of downtime, the company was losing potential revenue from orders that could not be fulfilled.

Loss of customer confidence: Delayed deliveries and lack of communication with customers about problems led to frustration among many of them, resulting in negative feedback and loss of loyalty.


The company realized the consequences of inadequate preparation for the migration. Scheduling this type of project during a less busy period can significantly reduce the potential risk of downtime. It is important to thoroughly test the new system before full implementation to detect and resolve potential problems.

Preparing a contingency plan and a strategy for communicating with customers in case of problems is key to maintaining customer trust.

Case study 4: Errors in system configuration

Background of the situation: An online store specializing in the sale of electronic equipment. Due to the complexity of its product range and the increasing number of orders, the company decided to update its WMS to better meet market demands.

What went wrong:

Misconfiguration of business rules: The WMS has been misconfigured for specific business rules. The rules for order flow, locating products in the warehouse or processing returns were incorrect.

Mismatch with the specifics of the assortment: Due to the variety of products sold, a special system configuration was needed. Misalignments led to problems with warehouse management, the system incorrectly classified products into a particular form of delivery causing some small SKUs to be shipped by courier for bulky products and other bulky ones to receive parcel courier labels.

Ill-conceived integrations with other systems: The WMS was supposed to be integrated with various e-commerce platforms and vendor systems, but improper configuration led to data synchronization problems and delays in order processing.



Delayed deliveries: Due to system configuration errors, many orders were delayed, leading to customer dissatisfaction.

Increased operating costs: Errors in carrier selection increased operating costs and incorrect product location in the warehouse significantly reduced process efficiency.

Loss of sales: Due to product availability issues and delays in order fulfillment, the company has experienced a decline in sales and loss of customers.


The entrepreneur understood the importance of an accurate WMS configuration tailored to the company’s specific operations. It is crucial to thoroughly understand your own business processes before making any changes to the system and working with the solution provider and consulting with experts is essential to avoid costly mistakes. Thoughtful integrations with other systems are key to the smooth operation of e-commerce operations.


Case study 5: Employee resistance

Background of the situation: A company that sells auto parts. Over the years, the company has adopted certain ways of operating that were well known and accepted by long-time employees. In response to the need for more efficient inventory management, the company decided to migrate to a new WMS.

What went wrong:

Lack of communication: The company’s management failed to inform employees of the changes in advance, leading to uncertainty and concern among the team.

Inadequate training: When the new system was introduced, inadequate training was provided to employees. Many felt overwhelmed and unprepared to work with the new technology.

Misunderstanding of benefits: Long-time employees were accustomed to old work methods and did not understand the benefits of the new system, leading to a lack of motivation to absorb the novelty.



Productivity decline: Unaware of how to use the new system, employees made mistakes, leading to delays in order processing.

Dissatisfaction within the team: lack of support and communication from management led to frustration among employees, which negatively affected the work atmosphere.

Additional costs: To rectify the situation, the company had to invest in additional training and consulting, which increased the cost of the migration.


The entrepreneur realized that people are key to the success of any technology migration. It is important to ensure transparent and regular communication with employees at every stage of the migration process. Training is essential to ensure that the team feels confident and competent when using the new system. Acceptance of the change is key, so it is important to understand and appreciate employees’ concerns and show them the benefits of the new system.

Case study 6: Security issues

Background of the situation:

The company’s growing online store offering products for children. Due to expansion and an increasing number of orders, the company decided to update its WMS to better manage its warehouse.

What went wrong:

The IT team opted for a modern WMS tool that promised greater efficiency and better integration with the company’s other systems. After several weeks of testing, the system was deployed, but shortly after implementation it was discovered that the new system had security holes that allowed unauthorized access to customer data.



Unauthorized individuals gained access to the database, leading to a leak of the customer database. The company has been informed by regulators of potential financial penalties for violations of data protection regulations. The company immediately took action to fix the vulnerabilities. An outside company specializing in IT security was hired to help identify and fix the problems. Customers were also informed of the breach and steps were taken to offer them protection against identity theft.

The lessons learned led to changes in the company’s procedures to conduct an in-depth security audit prior to each implementation of a new IT system. Regular testing and updates are key to ensuring the security of your WMS data.


How to avoid and manage WMS migration risks?

WMS migration is a key step in the development of many companies. If carried out correctly, it can bring a number of benefits, but each time it carries risks.

A key element in a successful migration is the right partner – a company or team of specialists that has the experience and competence to implement and customize WMS systems. Tips that can help you make the right choice:

  • Make sure the potential partner has a proven track record in WMS migration, especially in the e-commerce industry. Ask for references and contact previous clients to find out how their cooperation went.
  • The partner should thoroughly understand the specifics of your business, your needs and expectations. This means that they will not only provide the technology, but also advise on best practices and adapt the system to your business model.
  • Migration is not only the implementation of a new system, but also post-launch support. Make sure the partner you choose offers after-sales support, such as employee training, technical support and regular system updates.
  • Your business will grow, so it’s important that your WMS can grow with it. The partner should offer solutions that are flexible and can be scaled as your business grows.
  • Nowadays, security issues are crucial. Make sure the potential partner applies the latest safety standards and is able to bring the system into compliance with current regulations and standards.
  • Effective communication with the partner is essential throughout the migration process. Choose such companies that are open to regular meetings, status updates and that listen to your comments and suggestions.


Migration introduces changes that can affect the daily work of your employees. To reduce the resistance and challenges of assimilating a new system, it is important that you:

  • He organized training sessions to provide employees with knowledge of the new system’s functions and capabilities. They include both theoretical basics and practical exercises.
  • He provided employees with manuals, video instructions or FAQs that can help them better understand and use the new system.
  • Set up an internal support team or use a vendor to provide quick answers to questions and solve employee problems.
  • He encouraged employees to share opinions and comments on the system. This can help identify and resolve problems at an early stage.

What to do more of:

  • Clearly define what you want to achieve with the migration so that all activities are directed toward these goals. Carefully analyze your current system, data and processes to identify potential challenges and needs.
  • Always have a plan B so you can react quickly in case of unforeseen problems.
  • Assume there may be delays, so add extra time at each migration step.
  • Be ready to reallocate resources (people, time, budget) in response to unexpected challenges.
  • Meet regularly with the team to monitor progress and make adjustments to the plan as needed.
  • Use tools to track progress, identify problems, and measure migration effectiveness.
  • Establish regular checkpoints to assess whether the migration is going according to plan and whether goals are being met.
  • Ask employees and other users for feedback on the new system and the migration process so you know what is working and what needs improvement.
  • Maintain accurate documentation of the entire migration process, which will help in future projects and evaluations.


Migrating a WMS in the context of e-commerce logistics is a complex process that presents many challenges, but at the same time offers significant benefits. When carried out with proper care, analysis and involvement of all parties involved, it can become a milestone in the evolution of a company’s warehouse operations.

The key to success is to understand that this is not just a technological project, but mainly a human one. Change, even if perceived as positive, always involves a degree of uncertainty. That’s why it’s so important to support employees through training, communication and incorporating their feedback into the process.

Ultimately, a properly executed migration can yield huge benefits: from increased productivity to better inventory management to customer satisfaction. However, remember that no two migrations are identical. Each company has its own characteristics and unique needs. That is why it is so important to approach the process with an open mind, flexibility and determination to succeed.

Let this article serve as a guide and inspiration for those facing the challenge of WMS migration, reminding them that proper planning, commitment and continuous improvement are the keys to success in this area.



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